Tube to Tubesheet Welding Titanium Grade 2

Tube to Tube Sheet Welding – Titanium Tube on Titanium Tube Sheet Face

The corrosion resistance of Titanium is due to a stable, protective, and strongly adherent oxide film layer. This film forms instantly when a fresh surface is exposed to air or moisture. This film growth is accelerated under strong oxidizing conditions. The Titanium oxide film is capable of healing itself instantly in the presence of moisture or oxygen. Because of this, Titanium applications are common in the fabrication of process equipment.

Please see our Technical Resources section for much more detailed information on the corrosion resistance and applications of Titanium.

Industrial Titanium Applications

Titanium has found a niche in many industrial applications where corrosion resistance is required. Here are some of the common applications of Titanium in corrosion-resistant service:

  • Chlorine Chemicals
  • Hydrochloric Acid
  • Phosphoric Acid
  • Sea Water
  • Sulfuric Acid
  • Nitric Acid

Chlorine Chemicals

Titanium Grade 2 Jacketed Reactor Pressure Vessel with Titanium

Titanium Grade 2 Jacketed Pressure Vessel, Titanium Gr. 2 Half Pipe Jacket

The corrosion resistance of Titanium in chlorine gas and chlorine containing solutions is the basis for a large amount of Titanium applications. Examples of Titanium fabrication most commonly used in chloro-alkali cells as anodes, cathodes, bleaching equipment for pulp and paper, Heat Exchangers, Piping, Pressure Vessels, and Pumps for the manufacture of other intermediate organic chemicals.

Fresh and Sea Water

Titanium resists all forms of corrosive attack in fresh and sea water to temperatures of 500°F (260°C). Titanium Tubing has been used in surface condensers successfully for decades in polluted sea water with no sign of corrosion. Titanium has provided over thirty years of trouble-free sea water service for the chemical, oil refining and desalination industries.

Nitric Acid

Titanium is resistant to highly oxidizing acids over a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. Titanium fabrication is extensively used for process equipment in the handling and production of nitric acid. Titanium offers excellent resistance over a full concentration range at temperatures below boiling.

Phosphoric Acid

Titanium Gr 12 Shell and Tube Steam Generator Heat Exchanger wit

Titanium Gr. 12 Shell & Tube Steam Generator w/ Duplex 2205 Heads, Rod Baffle Design

Unalloyed Titanium is resistant to phosphoric acid up to 30% concentration at room temperature. The resistance extends to about 10% pure acid at 140°F.

Hydrochloric Acid

Titanium has useful corrosion resistance in dilute hydrochloric acid applications. Small amounts of multivalent metal ions in solution can effectively inhibit corrosion.

Sulfuric Acid

Titanium is corrosion resistant to sulfuric acid only at low temperatures and concentrations such as 20% acid at 32°F and 5% acid at room temperature. Like hydrochloric acid, small amounts of multivalent metal ions in solution can effectively inhibit corrosion.

Organic Acids

Unalloyed Titanium generally has good resistance to many organic acids.

Titanium Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers with Multiple Shells in

Titanium Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, including Multiple Shells in Series (TEMA AEL)

Do Not Use Titanium with Red Fuming Nitric Acid

Although Titanium has an excellent corrosion resistance to nitric acid over a wide range of temperatures and concentrations, it should not be used in applications with red fuming nitric acid, as a dangerous pyrophoric reaction product can be produced.

Please see our Technical Resources section for detailed corrosion resistance charts.

Titanium Fabrications

TITAN regularly designs, engineers and fabricates the following types of Titanium custom process equipment:

Titanium Applications

Titanium serves many different applications in these industry categories:

  • Chemical Process
  • Petrochemical
  • Oil & Gas
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Geothermal
  • Sea Water
  • Water Desalination
  • LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas)
  • Biomass
  • Mining
  • Utilities
  • Nuclear Power
  • Solar Power

Titanium is very well suited to many industrial processes. The following are some of the environments in which Titanium is fully resistant*.

  • Aluminum Chloride
  • Acetic Acid
  • Acetic Anhydride
  • Ammonium Hydroxide
  • Barium Chloride
  • Calcium Chloride
  • Calcium Hypochlorite
  • Carbolic Acid
  • Carbolic Acid C.P.
  • Carbon Tetrachloride
  • Chloroacetic Acid
  • Chromic Acid
  • Chromic Acid C. P.
  • Citric Acid
  • Copper Sulfate
  • Cupric Chloride
  • Ferric Chloride
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Lactic Acid
  • Magnesium Chloride
  • Manganese Chloride
  • Mercuric Chloride
  • Nickel Chloride
  • Nitric Acid
  • Oleic Acid
  • Phosphoric Acid
  • Potassium Chloride
  • Sodium Chlorate
  • Sodium Chloride
  • Sodium Nitrate
  • Sodium Phosphate
  • Stannic Chloride
  • Stearic Acid
  • Sulfur Dioxide
  • Tannic Acid
  • Tartaric Acid
  • Trichloroacetic Acid
  • Zinc Chloride

For a general guide on corrosion resistance, temperatures and concentrations please see TITAN’s publication, “Corrosion Resistance of Metals in Various Chemical Media” for additional information.*

*Please Note: Final selection of material must be based on actual evaluation of the metal in the corrosive medium under study.

Consult with TITAN if you have need for unique Titanium applications or fabrication of any type of process equipment.  Please contact us by phone at (805) 487-5050 or toll-free (877) 487-5050 or email