Welcome to TITAN’s Online Technical Resource Section

Here you will find a wealth of corrosion data, material properties, procedures, manuals and brochures concerning Reactive and Corrosion Resistant Metals (CRA). We believe this information will be beneficial to you, as it is the type of data our engineers use daily in solving corrosion issues. We’re sure you will find it of interest.

TITAN wants this resource to be constantly growing, and we will be adding to it continually. It is our intention to build the best on-line library pertaining to the reactive metals. We invite you to check in often for updates.

If you are a customer, vendor or author of a paper who has questions, we invite you to contact us. We welcome your input and feedback. If you have something that you feel would be a valuable addition please give us a call or email it to us.

TITAN Metal Fabricators
805 487 5050
info@titanmf.com

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Literature
Properties of the Reactive Metals

Applications of Titanium, Zirconium, Tantalum – Details which reactive metals works the best at protection when dealing with extremely corrosive materials. This selection is important when terms of cost-effectiveness and life expectancy of your process equipment.

Corrosion Resistance Tables

These tables show the corrosion resistance of metals (Tantalum, Niobium, Zirconium, Titanium, Alloys, Monel, Inconel and 316 SS) in various chemical media, including the level of concentration and temperature of the chemical.

Corrosion Resistant Equipment for HCL Steel Pickling

Information on TITAN’s product offerings for the steel industry for HCL pickling applications, including custom-designed Serpentine, Grid and U-Shaped Coils and Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers.

Tantalum and Hastelloy Overhead Condensers for Pharmaceutical Applications

Explains the development and features of Overhead Condensers used for Pharmaceutical applications and why Tantalum is the preferred reactive metal used for construction.

Properties of Tantalum

Tantalum is the most corrosion resistant metal in common use today. This document details the wide range of applications Titanium can be used for and what corrosive materials it can be used for protection against.

TITAN Metal Fabricators Corporate Brochure

TITAN Metal Fabricators’ corporate brochure details our extensive design and manufacturing capabilities in North America and Asia for the chemical, petrochemical, oil & gas, liquefied natural gas and pharmaceutical industries.

General Corrosion Resistance
AL6XN Corrosion Chloride Environments — Rolled Alloys

AL-6XN Alloy was originally designed for seawater service, however, it’s corrosion resistance is suitable for many more applications. This report provide laboratory test results from Rolled Alloys of AL-6XN’s behavior within Chloride environments.

Corrosion Resistance of Titanium — TIMET

This report offers extensive research from TIMET, Titanium Metals Corporation, on the corrosive resistant properties of Titanium in specific environments with the effects of temperature and time.

Corrosion Resistance of Hastelloy Booklet — Haynes Intl

This file has information on the alloy characteristics of HASTELLOY and the comparative resistance of HASTELLOY to various corrosive materials in specific conditions dependent on concentration and temperature.

Corrosion Resistance of Metals in Various Chemical Media Tables

These tables show the corrosion resistance of metals (Tantalum, Niobium, Zirconium, Titanium, Alloys, Monel, Inconel and 316 SS) in various chemical media, including the level of concentration and temperature of the chemical.

H2SO4 ISO Corrosion Chart

Chart shows the varying chemical reaction of Sulfuric Acid against the reactive metals.

Hydrogen Embrittlement of Tantalum

Under sufficiently aggressive conditions, Tantalum can be susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. This report discusses some conditions where embrittlement has been observed or encountered and proposes methods for minimization or elimination.

Material Selection Overview  Reducing – Oxidizing – Chlorides

Guide to selecting the type of metal to use for fabricating depending on the acidic conditions present.

Nickel Alloy Performance Guide — Rolled Alloys

Extensive guide that describes the different alloys used by TITAN in fabrication, maximum allowable design stresses for ASME boiler and pressure vessel code, corrosion resistance under specific environments, and suggests weld fillers for metal joints

TITAN Corrosion Coupon Testing Guidelines

This is a useful testing log and guide to corrosion testing of an alloy in different test environments.

Instructions for Conducting Corrosion Coupon Tests

Instructions on how to conduct corrosion coupon testing. This aids in the selection of materials of construction for equipment and piping and allows you to test potential materials in your corrosive media under actual process conditions.

Zirconium Passes the Acid Test — ATI Wah Chang

Article excerpt where Steve Sparkowich, Corrosion Lab Manager at ATI Wah Chang, discusses the advantages of Zirconium over other metals and reports on the successful use of Zirconium Heat Exchangers in acid recovery systems.

Zircadyne Zirconium Corrosion Data — ATI Wah Chang

Table shows the corrosion resistance of Zirconium in various corrosive media, including the level of concentration and temperature of the chemical.

Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys for Use in Sulfuric Acid Applications — ATI Wah Chang

This paper describes the corrosion resistance of Zirconium in a three general sulfuric acid application areas and will show why Zirconium was a material of choice for use in these applications. This paper also describes the factors (alloy composition, impurities, heat treatment, stress, acid concentration, temperature) that could affect the corrosion resistance of zirconium. A method for heat treatment of zirconium for improved corrosion resistance in elevated concentrations and temperatures will also be discussed. This paper also describes a new low tin Zirconium alloy that was developed for improved corrosion resistance in the higher sulfuric acid concentrations and higher temperatures.

Zirconium in Organic Applications — ATI Wah Chang

Zirconium can be the best alternative for material selection in many organic applications. This data sheet details  the corrosive resistant properties of Zirconium in specific organic environments with the effects of temperature and concentration.

Zirconium in Sulfuric Acid Pickling Applications — ATI Wah Chang

Technical data sheet detailing the advantages of Zirconium over other materials for use in sulfuric acid pickling applications. Includes information on operating limitations and safety concerns.

Zirconium Sulfuric Acid Datasheet — ATI Wah Chang

Technical data sheet detailing the advantages of Zirconium over other materials for use in chemical and pharmaceutical applications using sulfuric acid. Includes information on corrosion rate and resistance compared to other alloys.

Zirconium Sulfuric Acid Effect of Tin Content — ATI Wah Chang

Study defines the upper limits of temperature and acid concentration for effective use of Zirconium 702 in processes using sulfuric acid.

Titanium
Code Case 2497-2 Titanium 58 ksi Gr 2-7-16-26

Inquiry: May unalloyed and palladium and ruthenium enhanced titanium conforming to the requirements of Grades 2, 7, 16, or 26 (UNS R50400, R52400, R52402, and R52404) except with a minimum UTS of 58 ksi be used in Section VIII, Division 1 construction with design allowable stresses adjusted for the higher minimum specified UTS?

Corrosion Resistance of Titanium — TIMET

Brochure published by TIMET summarizes the corrosion resistant data with regard to Titanium accumulated in over 40 years of laboratory testing and application experience.

Titanium Alloy Guide — RMI Titanium

Published by RMI Titanium Company, brochure discusses attractive mechanical properties of Titanium; its corrosive resistance to a large range of harsh chemical environments; various methods of machining different grades of Titanium, and different processes used for welding Titanium.

Properties of Titanium

TITAN produced brochure on the different industrial applications of Titanium and its corrosion resistance against chlorine chemicals, fresh & sea water, nitric acids, phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and organic Properties of acids.

Titanium Brochure — ATI

Published by ATI, technical data sheet on Titanium details information on Titanium grades; sizes & tolerances; typical applications of Titanium, and mechanical & physical properties of Titanium.

Tantalum
Advantages of Tantalum and Hastelloy in Pharmaceutical Applications

During the past three decades, Tantalum and High Nickel Alloy Shell and Tube Condensers have emerged as a versatile alternative to carbon block heat exchangers offering superior corrosion resistance that are commonly used by the world’s leading pharmaceutical manufacturers and pharmaceutical engineering companies. This white paper discusses all the advantages of fabricating with the reactive metals.

Cabot Reference Letter

Cabot Corporation recommendation letter of TITAN Metal Fabricators, Inc. to anyone considering the use of Tantalum or Niobium equipment.

Comparison of Tantalum Condensers to Graphite Condensers for Pharmaceutical Applications

This paper summarizes the selection of material for heat exchangers for a recently constructed Pharmaceutical plant used for synthesizing the active organic chemicals in development Pharmaceutical products.

Comparison of Tantalum Heat Exchangers to Graphite for Steel Pickling

Chart comparison of Tantalum Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers to Graphite Heat Exchangers for Steel Pickling Applications.

Conflict-Free Materials Sourcing Policy

Certification letter stating TITAN Metal Fabricators does not purchase any materials that are known to come from conflict sources.

H. C. Starck Reference Letter

H. C. Starck, Inc. recommendation letter of TITAN Metal Fabricators, Inc. to anyone considering the use of Tantalum or Niobium equipment.

Hydrogen Embrittlement of Tantalum

Under sufficiently aggressive conditions, Tantalum can be susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. This document cites conditions where such embrittlement has been observed or encountered. Methods that have been proposed for minimizing or eliminating hydrogen embrittlement of Tantalum are described.

Tantalum and Niobium in the Pharmaceutical Industry

This article defines Tantalum and Niobium and describes how these refractory metals can be used in corrosion- resistant applications when designing equipment for the pharmaceutical industry.

Properties of Tantalum

TITAN produced brochure on the different industrial applications of Tantalum and its corrosion resistance against bromine, chlorine, HCL, nitric acids and sulfuric acid.

Tantalum Materials in the CPI for the Next Millennium — H. C. Starck

Tantalum materials have been used in the Chemical Processing Industry (CPI) for over 60 years and continue to be important materials of construction. This H C Starck paper will discuss Tantalum and Ta-2.5W alloy applications that have evolved over the past century to current day applications.

Tantalum Price Increases 2010 – 2011

The purpose of this document is to explain the reason for the drastic increase in the price and delivery of Tantalum in late 2010 / 2011.

TITAN Fully Welded Flush Face Completely Drainable Tubesheet Design Pharmaceutical Duty

Document detailing the design and purpose of  TITAN’s fully welded flush face tubesheet design.

Corrosion Resistant Heating for HCL Pickling

The steel industry has traditionally used PTFE immersion coils, direct steam spargers and carbon block heat exchangers to heat its pickle baths. Continuous maintenance and the elimination of deep welling of its spent HCL pickle liquor due to its environmental impact has forced the steel industry to look for alternative ways to heat their pickle baths. The use of Tantalum immersion coils and Tantalum shell and tube heat exchangers has proved itself to eliminate all of the potential problems with corrosion for the steel industry.

TITAN Tantalum Dual Containment — Tubesheet Design Pharmaceutical Duty

Basic example of a fully drainable tubesheet design used on hastelloy heat exchangers for the pharmaceutical industry.

Hastelloy

A Distinction Between “Bead Worked” and “Cold Reduced” Tubular Products — Haynes Intl

Many fluid process designs require tubular products for use as piping and In various heat exchanger systems. When aggressive process streams are involved, corrosion-resistant alloys (e.g. nickel-base alloys) are selected. Since weldments are usually the most vulnerable to corrosive attack,  seamless tubing is often considered; however, cost considerations steer the designers to the selection of welded tubing that has been cold worked and annealed. This paper details the two different types.

Corrosion Resistance of Hastelloy Alloys — Haynes Intl

Comprehensive booklet produced by Haynes International detailing chemical compositions, properties profiles and alloy characteristics of Hastelloy.

Hastelloy B-3 Alloy — Haynes Intl

Comprehensive booklet produced by Haynes International detailing principle features, properties and corrosion resistance of Hastelloy B-3.

Hastelloy C-22 Alloy — Haynes Intl

Comprehensive booklet produced by Haynes International detailing principle features, properties and corrosion resistance of Hastelloy C-22.

Hastelloy C-276 Alloy — Haynes Intl

Comprehensive booklet produced by Haynes International detailing principle features, properties and corrosion resistance of Hastelloy C-276.

Hastelloy C-2000 Alloy — Haynes Intl

Comprehensive booklet produced by Haynes International detailing principle features, properties and corrosion resistance of Hastelloy C-2000.

Fabrication of Hastelloy Corrosion-Resistant Alloys — Haynes Intl

This brochure is a general guide to the fabrication of the following corrosion-resistant alloys produced by Haynes International, Inc. – Hastelloy B-3 alloy, Hastelloy C-4 alloy, Hastelloy C-22 alloy, Hastelloy C-2000 alloy, Hastelloy C-276 alloy, Hastelloy G-30 and Hastelloy N alloy. It is not meant to be an instruction manual.

Hastelloy G-30 Alloy — Haynes Intl

Comprehensive booklet produced by Haynes International detailing principle features, properties and corrosion resistance of Hastelloy G-30.

Hastelloy G-35 Alloy — Haynes Intl

Comprehensive booklet produced by Haynes International detailing principle features, properties and corrosion resistance of Hastelloy G-35.

History of Haynes International, Inc — Haynes Intl

Excerpt out of “Pittsburgh Engineer” magazine recounting the history of Haynes International since it was formed back in December 1912.

Hastelloy Hybrid BC1 Alloy — Haynes Intl

Datasheet produced by Haynes International detailing corrosion resistance and available forms and sizes of Hastelloy Hybrid-BC1.

Specifications of Haynes Corrosion-Resistant Alloys — Haynes Intl

Datasheet by Haynes International detailing multiple specifications of the Corrosion-Resistant Alloys they produce.

Haynes International Reference Letter

Haynes International recommendation letter of TITAN Metal Fabricators, Inc. to anyone considering the use of Hastelloy equipment.

Duplex Stainless Steel

ATI 2205 Alloy Duplex Stainless Steel — ATI Metals

Technical datasheet produced by ATI detailing the general, mechanical, impact and corrosion properties of Duplex ATI 2205 including information on fabrication, welding, heat treatment and forming.

The Use of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel for Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Applications — International Moly Association

Brochure published by IMA detailing the principle features, properties and corrosion resistance of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel for pharmaceutical and biotechnology applications.

AL-6XN Alloy Brochure — Rolled Alloys

Brochure published by Rolled Alloys detailing the principle features, properties and corrosion resistance of ATI produced AL-6XN Alloy.

AL-6XN Laboratory Corrosion Tests in Chloride Environments — Rolled Alloys

Abstract published by Rolled Alloys on laboratory corrosion testing done by ATI on AL-6XN alloy in various chloride environments.

Alloy Performance Guide — Rolled Alloys

Brochure produced by Rolled Alloys detailing the general properties and corrosion resistance of corrosion-resistant alloys including suggested fillers and machining.

Duplex Stainless Overview — Outokumpu

Technical datasheet produced by Outokumpu detailing the general, mechanical, impact and corrosion properties of Duplex Stainless Steel including information on fabrication, welding, heat treatment and forming.

Practical Guidelines for the Fabrication of Duplex Stainless Steel — International Moly Association

Handbook produced by IMOA presents practical information for the successful fabrication of duplex stainless steels, comparing the properties and fabrication practices of duplex stainless steel to those of the 300-series austenitic stainless steels and to carbon steel.

How to Weld Type 2205 Code Plus Two Duplex Stainless Steel — Outokumpu

Technical sheet published by Outokumpu with detailed instructions on how to weld 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel, including guidelines on hot forming, heat treatment and machining.

Welding Consequences of Replacing Austenitic with Duplex Stainless Steel — Outokumpu

Published by Outokumpu, this paper will give typical field experiences on the differences between welding austenitic and duplex stainless steels.

Datasheet Zeron 100 — Rolled Alloys

Rolled Alloys produced datasheet on physical and mechanical properties of Zeron 100 as well as its specifications, chemical composition, applications and features.

Zeron 100 Welding Guidelines — Rolled Alloys

Guidelines produced by Rolled Alloys on the preparation, typical joint configurations, procedure and post-weld cleaning for welding Zeron 1000.

Zirconium

ATI Wah Chang Reference Letter

ATI Wah Chang recommendation letter of TITAN Metal Fabricators, Inc. to anyone considering the use of Zirconium equipment.

Heat Treatment of Zirconium Equipment

Information on the different types of heat treatment available of Zirconium equipment depending on what environmental conditions the equipment will be exposed to in service – Stress relief, Oxide Thickening and Full Anneal Heat Treatment.

Tube to Tubesheet Joints: The Many Choices — BJ Sanders

One of the most important steps in the mechanical design process is determining the method of attachment for the tube-to-tubesheet joint. Many of the problems which have been experienced with Zirconium shell and tube heat exchangers could have been avoided by giving more attention to the selection and design of the tube-to-tubesheet joint. This paper published by B J Sanders details the many choices available for joining tube to tubesheet and how to select the best for your project.

Zirconium Passes the Acid Test — ATI Wah Chang

Published article where Steve Sparkowich, Corrosion Laboratory Manager at ATI Wah Chang, discusses the advantages of Zirconium over other metals and reports on the successful use of Zirconium heat exchangers in acid recovery systems.

Zircadyne 702 and 705 — ATI Wah Chang

Technical datasheet published by ATI Wah Chang on the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of Zirconium alloys Zircadyne 702 and 705 as well as data on corrosion resistance and allowable stress values.

Properties of Zirconium

TITAN produced brochure on the different industrial applications of Zirconium and its corrosion resistance against nitric acid, formic acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid and melamine.

Zircadyne Zirconium Corrosion Data — ATI Wah Chang

Technical data sheet published by ATI Wah Chang on the corrosion data for Zircadyne Zirconium against a variety of corrosive media.

Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys for Use in Sulfuric Acid Applications — ATI Wah Chang

White paper published by Richard Sutherlin, Wah Chang, describes the corrosion resistance of Zirconium in a three
general sulfuric acid application areas and will show why Zirconium was a material of choice for use in these applications; the factors (alloy composition, impurities, heat treatment, stress, acid concentration, temperature) that could affect the corrosion resistance of Zirconium; a method for heat treatment of Zirconium for improved corrosion resistance in elevated concentrations and temperatures is also discussed, and a new low tin Zirconium alloy that was developed for improved corrosion resistance in the higher sulfuric acid concentrations and higher temperatures.

Zirconium in Hydrochloric Acid Applications

Technical data sheet detailing the advantages of Zirconium over other materials for use in hydrochloric acid in chemical processing industry. Includes information on operating limitations and safety concerns.

Zirconium in Organic Applications — ATI Wah Chang

Technical data sheet detailing the advantages of Zirconium for use in organic media. Longer equipment life, reduced maintenance downtime, and higher purity product streams are all possible with the proper application of zirconium, making it the most cost-effective option when compared with other alloys.

Zirconium in Sulfuric Acid Applications — ATI Wah Chang

Technical data sheet details the advantages of Zirconium over other materials for use in sulfuric acid applications. If properly applied, an equipment life of over 20 years is expected.

Zirconium in Sulfuric Acid Pickling Applications — ATI Wah Chang

Technical data sheet published by ATI Wah Chang that discusses the unique physical properties and superior corrosion resistance of Zirconium in the sulfuric acid conditions associated to pickling steel.

Effect of Tin Content on the Corrosion of Zirconium 702 in Sulfuric Acid — ATI Wah Chang

White paper published by Derrill Holmes of ATI Wah Chang that defines the upper limits of temperature and acid concentration for effective use of Zirconium 702 in processes using sulfuric acid. Standard immersion tests including autoclave tests were used to demonstrate the differences in corrosion behavior of typical Zirconium 702 (R60702) containing approximately 2400 ppm Tin, and low-Tin Zirconium 702 containing approximately 1400 ppm Tin.

Equipment Design

ASME Strength Weld Tube-to-Tubesheet Standards

Excerpt provides ASME rules of basis for establishing weld sizes and allowable joint loads for full strength and partial strength tube-to-tubesheet welds.

Physical Properties of Chemicals and Gases

Chart published by TITAN listing physical properties of various corrosive chemicals in water solutions, organic liquids and gases.

Eddy Current Testing vs Ultrasonic IRIS for Inspection of Heat Exchanger Tubing — NDE Associates

Inspectors responsible for maintenance of heat exchangers are faced with the question on selection of the appropriate NDT technique.  Following data compares the performance of Eddy Current Testing (ECT) and Ultrasonic IRIS for inspection of heat exchanger tubes. This information was obtained from the report published by the Materials Technology Institute of Chemical Industries, MTI Project 123, St. Louis, 1999 (1). The report presents the capabilities of evaluated NDT techniques for tubing inspections. The data was taken using realistic, well characterized mock-ups.

Explosion Clad Process — Movie from DMC Clad Metal Corp

Short movie produced by DMC Clad Metal that explains the explosion clad process.

Flexitallic Gasket Design Manual

Manual published by Flexitallic offers the engineer and end user assistance in meeting the goal of providing fundamentally sound static sealing practice. Developed and collated by Flexitallic’s worldwide team of engineers, this publication is the “engineer’s handbook” of static seals technology. In this document, Flexitallic discusses gasket selection, gasket design and gasket installation.

Practical Guidelines for the Fabrication of Duplex Stainless Steels — International Moly Association

This manual published by IMOA is for fabricators and for end users with fabrication responsibility. It presents practical information for the successful fabrication of duplex stainless steels. It provides data comparing the properties and fabrication practices of duplex stainless steels to those of the 300-series austenitic stainless steels and to carbon steel.

Heat Exchanger Blank Input Form for Printing

Heat Exchanger Spec Form Datasheet

Instructions for Conducting Corrosion Coupon Tests — ATI Wah Chang

Corrosion coupon testing is used extensively to aid in the selection of materials of construction for equipment and piping Wah Chang corrosion coupons enable you to test their materials in the desired corrosive media under actual process conditions.

Plating and Anodizing
Quick Reference Guide – TITAN Immersion Coils

Quick Reference Guide of standard specifications, formulas and “Rules of Thumb” used in the Metal Finishing Industry for Titanium Immersion Coils. Contact TITAN for more detailed thermal evaluation. These formulas cannot be used in all circumstances.

TITAN Quick Reference Guide – TITAN Titanium Anode Baskets

Quick Reference Guide of standard specifications, formulas and “Rules of Thumb” used in the Metal Finishing Industry for Titanium Anode Baskets, Titanium Anode Hooks and Titanium Anodes. Contact TITAN for custom designs.

References

ATI Wah Chang Reference Letter

ATI Wah Chang recommendation letter of TITAN Metal Fabricators, Inc. to anyone considering the use of Zirconium equipment.

Cabot Corporation Reference Letter

Cabot Corporation recommendation letter of TITAN Metal Fabricators, Inc. to anyone considering the use of Tantalum or Niobium equipment.

Reference List for Tantalum Fabrications

Reference list of TITAN Tantalum fabrication customers

H. C. Starck Reference Letter

H. C. Starck Inc recommendation letter of TITAN Metal Fabricators, Inc. to anyone considering the use of Tantalum or Niobium equipment.

Haynes International Reference Letter

Haynes International recommendation letter of TITAN Metal Fabricators, Inc. to anyone considering the use of Hastelloy equipment.

TITAN Customer Reference List

General reference list of TITAN customers